Limonene is found in the rind of citrus fruits, such as lemons, limes, and oranges. Limonene is one of the most common terpenes found in nature and may offer several health benefits. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-stress, and possibly disease-preventing properties.
It’s often referred to as d-limonene, which is its main chemical form. Limonene belongs to a group of compounds known as terpenes, whose intense aromas protect plants by deterring predators.
Limonene has been shown to reduce inflammatory markers related to osteoarthritis, a condition characterized by chronic inflammation.
A test-tube study in human cartilage cells noted that limonene reduced nitric oxide production, a signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in inflammatory pathways.
Notably, high-dose supplements may cause side effects in some people. What’s more, insufficient evidence exists to determine whether limonene supplements are acceptable for pregnant or breastfeeding women. It’s best to consult your healthcare practitioner before taking limonene supplements, especially if you’re taking medications, are pregnant or breastfeeding, or have a medical condition.